Category: Teaching methodology

Teaching English in English online?

I recently got an email from, an online English Course for Spanish speakers offered by Oxford University. I got the impression that the course relies heavily on Spanish to teach English although the virtual tour didn’t work for me so I can’t really be certain.

I guess the question is when do learners practice using their English? Are they writing for this online course? Speaking in English? Do they use classroom English or are instructions generally given in Spanish?

English language jokes

Do you talk about jokes in your ESL classes?

A very successful lawyer parked his brand-new Lexus in front of his office, ready to show it off to his colleagues.

As he got out, a truck passed too close and tore off the door on the driver’s side.

The lawyer immediately grabbed his cell phone, dialed 911, and within minutes a policeman pulled up.

Before the officer had a chance to ask any questions, the lawyer started screaming hysterically. His Lexus, which he had just picked up the day before, was now completely ruined no matter what the body shop did to it.

When the lawyer finally wound down from his ranting and raving, the officer shook his head in disgust and disbelief.

“I cannot believe how materialistic you lawyers are,” the cop said. “You are so focused on your possessions that you don’t notice anything else.”

“How can you say such a thing?” asked the lawyer.

The cop replied, “Don’t you know that your left arm is missing from the elbow down? It must have been torn off when the truck hit you.”

“My God!” screamed the lawyer. “My Rolex!”

Or this series of shorter lawyer jokes

How does an attorney sleep?

First he lies on one side, and then he lies on the other.

How many lawyer jokes are there?

Only three. The rest are true stories.

How many lawyers does it take to screw in a light bulb?

Three. One to climb the ladder, one to shake it, and one to sue the ladder company.

If a lawyer and an IRS agent were both drowning, and you could save only one of them, would you go to lunch or read the paper?

What do you call a lawyer gone bad?


What do you call a lawyer with an IQ of 50?

Your Honor.

What does a lawyer use for birth control?

His personality.

What happens when you cross a pig with a lawyer?

Nothing. There are some things a pig won’t do.

Cosmetic surgery lesson idea

Summary of the lesson

My lesson is designed for adult learners who are at intermediate high in speaking, listening and reading and intermediate mid in writing. The topic is a cosmetic surgery and the materials include some visuals such as a poster, hand-outs and laminated scripts. In warm-up, they are going to mainly discuss ‘good-looks’ in groups. In presentation, they will be listening to a conversations talking about a cosmetic surgery and answering 4 focus questions. Then, they are going to learn several vocabulary items and one grammar rule introduced in the text within its context. In the three following activities, a game using laminated strips, a role-play and a discussion, students have more change to practice what they learn in warm-up and presentation. The students can practice a certain grammar form, unreal conditionals- ‘if I past verb, I would…’- in the game using laminated strips. In the next activities, a role-play and a discussion, students have more freedom to say what they want. They are going to talk about the topic, a cosmetic surgery in both a role play and a discussion.

II. Analysis

Right —hemisphere participation

Krashen insists that adult learners should learn language as children do. One obvious thing observed in children’s language learning is ‘right-hemisphere participation’ such as helps from emotion, sociability, imagination, which are hardly seen in adults’ language learning. To encourage adults to use their right brain functions, I use visual supports in warm-up. When pre-teaching vocabulary, I show the students a poster of a figure saying a sentence that contains the target vocabulary items so that I can help them imagine and visualize the real situation that the words can be used. Also, as an independent activity, I designed ‘role-play.’ By doing a role-play, the students will imagine the situation, interact with partners and picture the figures and to do so, their brain functions should be used a lot.

Risk-taking, facilitative anxiety

In affective theories of SLA, it is said that the students who are willing to take risks are more successful learners. Also, facilitative anxiety helps learners acquire language more successfully, though it is different form Krashen’s point of view. There two factors, risk taking and facilitative anxiety are related to each other because when students try to take risks, there usually comes facilitative anxiety. To form facilitative and encourage students to take more risks in my class, I am using lots of classroom interactions more risky to students. For example, TSST is more risky than brainstorming. Also, I often call on an individual student to answer aloud. At the same time, to prevent the anxiety from being debilitative, I often help students get the right answer by cueing, reflecting and lots of positive feedback.

Intrinsic motivation

In SLA affective filter theories, intrinsic motivation is more valued than extrinsic motivation as it helps students become more eager for learning. To help students have intrinsic motivation, it is said that the topic should contain controversy, conflict, opinion or advice, that there should be personalized questions in presentation and that there should be gaps in follow-up activities. In my lesson the topic is a cosmetic surgery, which is quite controversial and brings up lots of different opinions. Also, in presentation I ask students what they would advice to the character who appears in the listening if they were her friends. In other words, students are asked to give their personal opinions. In activities, students are doing a role-play and a discussion. The two activities are classic examples that have imagination, experience and opinion gaps. Therefore, students’ intrinsic motivation will be stimulated.

III. Conclusion

This lesson concerns mainly the two points in SLA theory, right-hemisphere participation and affective theories, especially the risk taking & facilitative anxiety and intrinsic motivation. To help students benefit form right-brain functions, visual supports and an activity, the role-play are included. To encourage students to take more risks with facilitative anxiety, classroom interactions such as cueing or TSST are used and lots of positive feedbacks are given to students. For the last, to stimulate the students’ intrinsic motivation, a controversial topic is chosen and personalizes questions and information, imagination, experience and opinions gaps are given to students in presentation, step 8 and activities.

Submitted by Esther

Deciding on whether you want cosmetic surgery or not is a big choice, so before you get some plastic surgery make sure that you spend time researching your plastic surgeon to make sure they don’t have a big backlog of complaints like some cosmetic surgeon firms do.

A tummy tuck can be performed together with liposuction to get the best result out of a body contouring surgical procedure done by board-certified plastic surgeons.

Present perfect lesson idea

Proficiency level: intermediate low or mid

Grade: 5~6 year

Number: 10

Hour: 50 minutes

Experience degree: They have been studying English for 2~3 years with native speakers, thus they are not hesitant in communication, but when speaking, they make often mistakes. They need accuracy.

â… .Overview of the lesson

The lesson was designed by practicing Present Perfect Tense. In the warm up, I asked them to have been to other countries like ‘Have you been or visited other countries?’ Usually, they said as only “Yes”, not completing sentences. I asked again “where countries have you been before?” They said only the name of countries. Or they answered like “I went to Paris.” At the same time, whenever I asked, I put the questions on the board emphasizing on the expression ‘have been’ or ‘have visited’

In the presentation, first, I gave the reading text about the Europe travel to them. Ss were supposed to find out some answers for scanning in the reading text. And then, I explained what the present perfect tense is, they practiced several times how to make the tense, being providing examples. Lastly they wrote one paragraph writing in accordance with each experience, applying the tense.

II. Theoretical justification

Acquisition and Learning

First, after sharing about trips to other countries, they start to recognize differences between the past and the present perfect tense. However when explaining the rule, they felt hard again. They tended to takes notes the rule and examples but they didn’t understand how the rule is related to the tense. Second, through scanning, they answered naturally what they figured out. Based on the text, we asked and answered each other without consciousness of the tense. But I let them change the given Korean questions in English. They tried to focus on the rule but it took for a few times to answer. Third, they enjoyed writing their experience to visit other countries. Sometimes they made mistakes to follow the rule, but they could fix right away. I think, in the end, they could understand and use the rule, connecting to what they already knew. But, even though they practiced the rule a lot, I was asking them to explain it next time, they couldn’t justify about it.


Though my Ss have no fear speaking in English, when facing new language rules, they avoid speaking to the class. I tried to ask them to response indirect questions in relation to the rule, such as ‘Have you been to Africa?’, not ‘Do you know the present perfect tense?’ It is because they are familiar with speaking freely. Second, although they are conscious to accept rules from the beginning, if speaking or writing to the class, they got chance to fix mistakes, like I have ‘aten’ pasta in Italia. The S was too much aware of making participle. At once he could change it appropriately, after getting my cue.


My Ss are willing to learn English. They usually have confidence in dealing with speaking, even their languages are not complete sentences. The reason that they learn grammar is to have more accuracy. The Present Perfect Tense that exits in English is not corresponding to the Korean tense. However they keep on practicing even without being explaining rules. When learning the tense, they got the gap between the past and the present perfect tense. It isn’t consistent to use them separately. Through practicing several examples in speaking, they recognize how different they are. If they had taken test about the rule, they could not have used it. The process of writing one paragraph, using the rule, they made sure how to apply the language use exactly.

â…¢. Conclusion

The strength that I covered in the lesson are the warm up part, some ways of dealing the text and letting them write one paragraph. First, I introduced them to ask their travel experiences to other countries. Thus they paid attention to the class easily and they started to understand the content in relation to each experience. Second, the questions for scanning that I intended with the given tense were helpful to understand the tense. I let them produce to be sure their understanding, according to the text. It gave a chance them to make mistakes, at the same time they got to fix it. Third, writing one paragraph using the tense, they got to internalize the rule. It is because the task was clear to apply to their real experiences.

The weakness is to do explain the rules automatically. I wanted them to recognize differences between the past and the given tense. But I think this trial caused more hard to understand it. I let them translate Korean into English. In the long run, this task was focused on not language use but the usage. It means this is not for production, so it is less helpful way to use the target language.

Submitted by Judy

In today’s culture teaching English as a second language is a very important job.

Harry Potter reading & writing lesson

I. Overview of the lesson

Lesson Title: Harry Potter from , 1999

Student Profile: 2nd grade of middle school, Intermediate Low

Target Language: Vocabulary items relating to reading article/ creating an invitation card

Materials: Reading articles/ Hand out

Step7 (Warm Up)

*Teacher starts a class by asking, “What is your hobby? “ to activate students’ schema

* Teacher makes students answer the question using T-S-S-T and visualize the answers on the board.

* Teacher asks more questions such as “Does anybody know what a novel is? “, “ What is the characters’ name in novel that you have read or heard about?”

* Students think about the characters’ name in novel by T-P-S

* Teacher visualizes the answers on the board.

Step8 (Presentation)

* Teacher introduces that students are going to read an advertisement of a novel.

* Teacher gives students a reading material.

* Teacher let students gist the main idea of the reading articles by T-P-S.

* After T-P-S, teacher let student summarize the main idea.

* Teacher gives students 3 focus questions and asks the answers using T-S-S-T.

* Teacher gives students hand out to practice vocabulary items of the reading material. This includes “boring”, “uneventful”, “exciting”, and “eventful”.

* Teacher checks students’ feedbacks asking, “ Do you want to read the novel, Harry Potter? Why? or Why not? “

Step9 (Controlled activity)

* Teacher gives students handout and students have to fill out the blanks in it to summarize the story by T-P-S.

* Students do storytelling with their partners.

* Teacher gives students another handout and students have to sequence the given sentences by T-P-S.

Step10 (Independent activity)

* Teacher introduces the activity, “ Creating an invitation card for Harry”.

* Before writing, Teacher let students know what kind of information can be included in the heading, the body and the closing asking questions “ What would you like to start this card? “, “ How could you conclude this card?” “ What kind of information can be included in the body?”

* Give students 15 minutes for creating an invitation card for Harry.

II. The theoretical justification of the activities

A. Input Hypothesis

Teacher gives meaningful questions. Teacher starts the class asking, “ What is your hobby? “ and “ What is the characters’ name in novels you have read or heard about? “ in step7. Also, teacher asks, “ Do you want to read the novel, Harry Potter? Why or Why not? “ in step8. Those are all personalized questions and questions starts from closed type to open type.

Teacher uses an authentic material. Teacher uses an advertisement of a novel as a reading material in step8 and this material is roughly tuned input; because this includes not only the target language (i) but also only +1 languages.

Students ask and answer the questions and these question and answers are roughly tuned input. Students share ideas about the characters’ name of the novels by T-P-S in step7 and gist the main idea by T-P-S in step8. Also, students summarize and sequence the story using T-P-S in step9.

B. Affective theory: Risk Taking

T-S-S-T is found in step7 and step8. Students have to ask, “ What is your hobby? “ and answer it in step7. They have to ask on focus questions and answer them in step8. So, students should listen carefully what the other students are saying and answer it considering the correctness of the form and message.

Individual student predicts the title of reading material, gusts the main idea, then summarize it in step8. Students have to sequence the given sentences in step9 as well. In addition, students have to create an invitation card by themselves in step10. Students have to take higher risk gradually throughout step8, step9 and step10.

C. Neurological factors: Right hemisphere participation

This lesson includes group activities. T-P-S activities are found in step7, step8 and step9. Also, storytelling activity is found in step9. To perform these activities, students have to ask and answer to share ideas using target language and language that they have learned.

Students have to stand ambiguity. Students have to predict the title of the reading material, gist the main idea and summarize them in step8. Students have to stand the uncertainty but it gives students chances to practice their languages.

III. Conclusion

This lesson applies 3 theories. They are Input Hypothesis, Risk Taking and Right Hemisphere Participation. In step7, this lesson plan accounts for Input Hypothesis using meaningful question and T-P-S and Risk Taking using T-S-S-T. In step8, this lesson plan accounts for Input Hypothesis applying an authentic materials, T-P-S activity and Right Hemisphere Participation using predicting, gist and summarizing. Finally, Risk Taking using T-S-S-T. In step9, this lesson plan supports Input Hypothesis and Right Hemisphere Participation applying storytelling and T-P-S activity and Risk Taking using sequencing the story. In step10, this lesson applies Risk Taking choosing creative writing.

If this lesson plan includes visuals in step7, this can activate students’ schema more effectively. Teacher can prepare the pictures of characters in novels.

Submitted by Janet

Scene from a musical lesson idea

I. Overview of the lesson

Generally, all children like not only singing songs and dancing to music, but also watching musicals. My students are 6 years old in Korean age and are introduced to various kinds of musicals in musical class. One day, I demonstrated a scene from a musical. At the beginning of the lesson, I introduced a song with the lines I taught in the lesson. The learners liked the song and movements because the gestures looked very funny. I acted out some dialogue with a hand puppet about getting a stomachache from eating too much ice-cream.

The situation was very familiar to the students, and lines in the scene were not too difficult for them. As a result, they were interested in my presentation. I checked their comprehension and then had them repeat chorally and individually in order to memorize the lines. Next they were supposed to practice target expressions with a partner. They had the chance to both ask and answer one time. I asked how they felt when their friends or family were sick, how they felt when they had a stomachache, and what they can say to their friends or family when they have a stomachache.

II. Theoretical justification of the activities -Risk taking

In this lesson, T-S-S-T was employed to force students to take risks in the warm-up and presentation. My young learners don’t have the ability to express their opinions fully in English. Therefore, I often use T-S-S-T in class in order to get the students accustomed to taking risks and asking and answering questions by themselves without excessive fear of misspeaking.

My students are familiar with the T-S-S-T method and are often given the opportunity to take chances with their second language. In the warm-up, I put them in a position to take some risks. I demonstrated the following scene from the target musical consisting of dialogue between myself and a hand puppet:

Me: “Ouch! Ouch!”

Puppet: “What’s the matter?”

Me: “I have a (stomachache).”

Puppet: “Why?”

Me: “Because I (ate too much ice cream).”

Puppet: “You should (stop eating ice-cream).”

Me: “Okay!”

I then posed the question, “Where am I sick?” The students were then asked to pose the same question to their classmates and answer with the target phrase “You (have a stomachache).” We then proceeded in the same way with 5 additional scenarios involving the vocabulary: “headache,” “toothache,” “itch,” “feel dizzy,” and “sunburn.”

Higher level questions were utilized in the presentation to lead the students to be successful language learners. I struggled to stimulate the students to express their opinions using the language targets; “What’s the matter?”, “Because I have…”, and “You should…” I asked the students some higher-level questions, such as: “How do you feel when you have a stomachache?”, “What can you say to your friends when they have a headache?”, and “What should you do when you have a toothache?” Some high risk-takers wanted to answer the questions but just raised their hand and couldn’t use the target expressions.

To control the activity, I gave positive feedback to the students who were successful and to those who were helping their classmates and negative feedback to students who raised their hands excitedly, but had no answer. Also, there were some students who were not willing to gamble at all with the activity. I tried to help by giving them confidence through cueing them to produce the desired response.

The opportunity to guess words was in the presentation so that the students could interact with the new vocabulary. I provided the target vocabulary based on illness such as; “headache,” “sunburn,” “toothache,” “itch,” and “dizzy.” Some vocabulary items, such as: “headache” and “stomachache” were familiar to them, but they had difficulty understanding the meaning of “sunburn.” I tried to convince them to tolerate the ambiguity of the unfamiliar word. However, they had a lot of difficulty getting past their inability to grasp this new vocabulary. As a result, I showed gestures and facial expressions to the students to try to help them. This was somewhat effective to encourage the students to predict the meaning of the words, but not enough. So I translated the new vocabulary into Korean to help them understand more fully.

After the class was finished, I reviewed the lesson and thought of one suggestion to help the students’ learning: if I had used pictures to demonstrate illnesses, the students would have understood the new target vocabulary, such as “sunburn,” “sun cream,” and “diet” much more easily.

III. Conclusion

According to the theory of Risk-Taking, the teacher should provide some opportunity for failure to the students and let them adventure with the target language. To follow it, I employed T-S-S-T, the higher level questions, and guessing words in this lesson.

In addition, the teacher should keep in mind the features of the low risk-takers and encourage them to produce correct answers without too much extended pressure. So I chose methods like cueing, modeling, chunking, and correcting errors.

Also, if the high risk-takers interrupt the class too much and exert a bad influence on their classmates, the educator should control them to speak or write with appropriate language.

Submitted by Mi Hee

What you enjoy doing lesson idea

I. Overview of the lesson

This lesson is designed for the Intermediate-low 6th grades Elementary school students who go institutes three times a week. Most of students are exposed to a variety of topics in order to maintain their interest in English learning also students are eager to learn English as their parents emphasize the importance of learning English all the time. Main focus in my lesson was that students make their own top five lists what they enjoy doing. In the warm up stage I asked students some questions to activate their schemata about their sleeping habits for teaching some key words which are related to sleeping habits. I did TSST a lot for leading all students participate to the class. Then in the presentation stage, I asked students some questions for identify genre. I used internet web page to find out the genre. I also gave some focus questions before do reading Test for helping students’ understanding. In the guided practice stage, I gave some activities, one is fill in the blank from the keywords and make their own list about their top five things what they enjoy doing.

II. Theoretical justification of the activities

A. Intrinsic Motivation

Intrinsic motivation is cognitive way. It means desire to perform an activity because it’s interesting not because of anticipating rewards. As far as Intrinsic Motivation concerned, students learn better and want to do something voluntarily if they are interested in what they are learning. I asked some questions in step 7 to activate their schemata and also for leading their interests. For example, I asked about their sleeping habits because my topic was top five sleepiest animals in the world. Most of animals don’t exist in Korea, so students will be interested to see them even through the pictures. In step 9, I asked students to make their own top five lists what they enjoy doing in their daily life. This also can make students compare to others’ and get some interests. With regards to promoting intrinsic motivation, the lesson was unsuccessful in some aspects because I didn’t give interesting activity in step 10 so it might have possibility to lose students’ interests about the lesson.

B. Risk-taking

Risk-taking is quite important to students for learning language. When they make mistakes teacher should not give an answer immediately. Teacher try to encourage students to find their answer by themselves to take a risk in the class. So I asked individual questions a lot in step 7,8 and 9. Also I asked them to answer in complete sentences by themselves. I only used repetition and chunking when I taught vocabulary and asked them to summarize. When they have a problem making the sentence correctly, I cued instead of modeling language. In step 7, warm-up, I used T-S-S-T for a question ‘How many hours do you sleep a day’ . Students had some difficulty to make complete sentences but I didn’t give answer instead of that I asked other students to help. This was a good way to encourage students to make errors and correct themselves. Taking a risk is necessary when students are learning. Teacher encourages risk taking by cueing. Then more students get chances to speak English, the faster they would reach the success in learning it.

C. Input Hypothesis

According to Krashen’s Input Hypothesis, the students can build up competence by understanding input and the text material should be concerned to be meaningful for students. I think activating schemata is very important to make input comprehensible. Once students are activated what they learned before, it is very helpful and effective for them to understand the new material better. So I gave some questions in step 7 to activate their schemata. Input hypothesis says that students can build competence by understanding messages. So for making comprehensible input to students, I asked students paraphrase with chunking in step 8. Following to Krashen’s “I+1.” in his theory such as “I” represents input at the current level of competence, and “+1” means input slightly beyond the learner’s current level. I did some higher activity for Intermediate-low students to make their own list to lead them higher level than current.

III. Conclusion

Through analyzing my lesson plan with some theories from SLA, I found some good things and some problems by myself. So I could evaluate by myself too. When I make another lesson plan next time, I can consider my weak and strong points about lesson plans then fix and evaluate by myself too. I’ll consider risk taking and intrinsic motivation more when I teach students to make them to participate class more. Also in the lesson plan, by various kinds of activities, I’ll try to make students can stimulate their right hemisphere.

Submitted by Cho Eun Jung

Teaching “what do you hear?” + animal sounds

In this lesson, the grade of the students is 1st year of elementary school. Students have been studying English for about 4 hours in a week for the last year. Their levels of reading and listening are novice high and the levels of writing and speaking are novice mid. I’m going to teach the expression, ‘What do you hear?’ and the target verbs related with animal sounds such as roaring, snorting, hissing and so on. The materials are an audio CD, a story book, pictures of animals, flash cards, animal toys and handouts for bingo game.

In the warm-up, I have students listen to the sounds of animals to activate students’ schema and then ask several questions to individual students such as “What do you hear?” and “How do you feel when you hear ‘hiss-hiss’?” In the presentation, I tell a story to the class. Before the story telling, I ask individual students several questions to brainstorm content after reading the title of the story. I tell the story with animal pictures and flash cards written with the target expression and vocabulary items. After telling the story, I check students’ comprehension with questions. I also explain the target vocabulary items with animal sounds. In step 9 and 10, both activities are controlled activities because students are young. The first activity is a role play with the same context in the presentation. The second activity is to play a ‘bingo’ game with the target expression and vocabulary items. Mainly, I’m going to mention the lesson with intrinsic motivation and risk-taking in this writing.

This lesson is consists of activating intrinsic motivation with interesting materials, personalizing and gaps. Firstly, in the material, using a CD recorded animals’ sounds is enough interesting to have students activate their schema. They can get their opinion through listening to the CD. Some of them may guess “It’s a lion!” or “It’s a tiger!” when they listen to the sounds of animals. Others of them may think “It’s horrible!” or “It’s pretty tough!” when they listen to the sounds of animals. Thus, this material brings out students’ intrinsic motivation.

Secondly, the warm-up and the presentation are planed of exciting intrinsic motivation with personalizing. In the warm, I ask several questions to individual students to activate their personal opinion after listening. To illustrate, I ask individual students “How do you feel when you hear “hiss-hiss-hiss”?” or “Let’s think! What animal is it?” with sound of an animal. Students can answer the questions such as “It’s cute,” “I’m scared!” or “It’s a snake.” In the presentation, I have students guess what contents is in the story. For instance, I ask students “Where can you see animals?” or “What animals are in the zoo?” Students can answer the questions such as “I can see animals in my house,” “I can see many animals in the zoo,” or “There is a horse in Seoul Zoo.” Therefore, step 7 and 8 activate students’ intrinsic motivation.

Finally, step 9 and 10 are outlined bring out intrinsic motivation with gaps. In step 9, students do a role play with target vocabulary items. Students have imagination gap and information gap through the role play. When some of them play a role of a lion, the students guess how a lion makes sounds and the students know which verb is used to express the lion’s sound. When others of them play a role of a boa constrictor, the students imagine how a boa constrictor makes sound and they know which verb is used to express the boa constrictor’s sound. In step 10, students play a ‘bingo ‘game with target language. Through this game, students have opinion gap. The class consists of several teams. Each member has each opinion gaps when they talk what is good way to win the game. For example, students can suggest “’Roaring’ is in this blank and ‘Snorting’ is in that blank.” Some students can agree or disagree because they have each opinion. Hence, step 9 and 10 is designed with intrinsic motivation.

This lesson is also planed of activating risk-taking by asking questions to individual students and a role-play activity. First, in the warm-up, I ask individual students “What do you hear?” after listening to the sounds of animals. Students can hesitate to answer because they don’t know the content or they worry about answering in a complete sentence. At the moment, I can cue the student with showing an animal picture or I can model for the students. Additionally, I use T-S-S-T to practice the target expression or classroom language. At the moment, students can worry about the new expression or making the question. When they have difficulty to ask and answer the question, I can model for them or ask the other students to help them. Hence, students take risk through answering individually the question or T-S-S-T.

Second, in step 9, students can take risk when they do a role-play activity. They can hesitate to play a role when they are shy to stand or to speak loudly in front of the class. If they need to help to play their role, I can give some hint to them. For instance, I have the students see the board on which is animal pictures and flash cards with target expression and verbs. They can recognize what they should say matching with their role and the hint on the board. Therefore, students take risk in the role play.

In conclusion, I analyzed this lesson with intrinsic motivation and risk-taking. This lesson is outlined activating intrinsic motivation with interesting material, personalizing and gaps. The lesson also brings out exiting risk-taking with asking individual students, T-S-S-T and a role-play. I think intrinsic motivation and risk-taking are very effective factors to encourage students in their hardest, if, especially, the age of students is young. One of the reasons is because thought of the young students is simple. Thus, they need to practice what they can think deeply. The other reason is because they lack concentration of the class. Therefore, risk-taking is very helpful to control of the concentration of students.

Submitted by Ray

Housing lesson idea

â… . Overview of the lesson

This lesson was designed for my Methodology microteaching presentation. The title is “Housing” and the student’s proficiency level is intermediate mid or low. This is conversation class in private language institute. Students are totally motivated because of their transfer to the foreign countries in six months or so. They are supposed to learn “used to + inf.” and several vocabulary items related to the topic.

In step 7, I ask student look at the pictures. Next, I ask several questions individually by using TSST. Then I introduce today’s lesson by asking them brainstorming about “Housing”. Here I ask them to TPS.

In step 8, I ask them read focus questions before listening to the text. First, I had them guess the answers in pairs and speak the answers individually with complete sentences. Then they listen to the text again. But, this time they fill in the blanks as they listen. Next, I explain the grammar by personalizing.

In step 9 and 10, I have students do an information gap. I have them make pairs A and B. Each student is given different picture. Next, I ask student describe their dream house in groups.

â…¡. Facilitative Anxiety and Intrinsic motivation

In step 7, I ask students several questions individually and use TSST techniques to promote facilitative anxiety. So, students can pay attention and participate in class more. Also, I use materials to draw students’ interest so that I can increase their motivation. Using pictures and graphic organizer activate students’ motivation by connecting them to the topic. I provide them authentic topic because motivation comes from the inside of our minds. We can promote students’ motivation intrinsically as well as extrinsically; here I want to use intrinsic motivation because they are adults.

In step 8, I ask students make complete sentences when answering the questions. Also, I have them guess the answers for focus questions before listening to the text. Next, I ask them fill in the blanks as they listen again and then check the answers individually by asking and answering the questions. This helps them generate more language, making the anxiety facilitative. Also, I personalize different questions so that I make the topic relevant to students to build up intrinsic motivation.

In step 9 and 10, I ask students describe about their dream house in groups. Next, I ask one student from each group talk and write down what they heard. Facilitative anxiety helps student here try to make correct answers. I also provide communicative activities to increase their motivation. I need not promote extrinsic motivation because intrinsic motivation is more motivating than extrinsic motivation.

â…¢. Conclusion

When we make lesson plan, we should apply SLA theories to make the lesson successful. To make the lesson more in efficient way, the teacher can use facilitate anxiety and intrinsic motivation. To promote facilitative anxiety, we can use asking questions by using various classroom interaction techniques. It is important and takes times to figure out the proper level of anxiety. If students have too much anxiety, they don’t perform well while if they have too less anxiety, they would be lazy. In addition to the facilitative anxiety, we can promote intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is related to the student’s own decision or interest and it comes from the inside of the students rather than outside. The teacher should activate student’s intrinsic motivation to generate them more language. Students can handle more anxiety if we give high motivation. Consequently, we can apply facilitate anxiety and intrinsic motivation properly to improve students proficiency when we design our lesson plan.

Submitted by Ellen

“Papa, please get the moon for me” lesson idea

1. Overview of the lesson

Now I’m students English my English institute. I like to teach English to many students, especially, elementary school students who are novice mid level. This lesson plan was design for elementary school, 2nd year students with a story book, named, ‘Papa, please get the moon for me.’ Using this story, I taught what things are on the night sky and I explained the various shapes of the moon. Also I explain about adjectives, for example, small, big, and verbs, such as, jump, dance, etc. I used many visuals and realia for help the students understand. In the presentation, for example, I used 4 pieces of large sand paper to describing the night sky and I also used round shaped rice snacks to explain the various shapes of the moon. My students enjoyed the lesson and they participated activities very well.

Theoretical justification of the activities

Right hemisphere participation

Though this lesson, they usually use the right brain with various visuals activities and song. Therefore, they could learn the langue very easily with visualization, positive emotion and imagination.

First, in the lesson plan, I used visuals to help my students learn the language meaningfully. When they listened to the story, they were concentrated on the colorful picture storybook and they could remember the vocabulary items. Even though there were some difficult expressions for their level, they could easily understand with the pictures. For example, ‘The moon got smaller and smaller.’ it was difficult to explain to novice mid students. However, after they look at the pictures and they made the moon with the round rice snacks, which are called bbungtigi in Korea, they could understand this sentence very easily. I think student’s visualization helps the language becomes meaningful and memorable to the students.

Second, they could enjoy the class with various activities. The story book was the package with the CD. In the CD is included the song that is same sentences with the story book. The song is very easy and funny to the students, so they usually sing a song and sometimes they danced. I thought the song made them enjoy the English class. With enjoying the language itself, they could connect their emotion and the languages become to be important to them.

Last, they could imagine with the role play. Some students become fathers, the other students become the moon and the daughter named Monica. In the role play, they should think what they say and imagine about their role. Through these steps they could have the time to think and memorize the language automatically. Also the language would become meaningful and memorable to them.

The Affective Filter, anxiety, and motivation

In this lesson, I considered the student’s affective condition, anxiety and their motivation from their mind. If they have some burden to learn English or too much anxiety, the lesson would be not effective. Therefore I thought that how to make them feel stable and how to activate their intrinsic motivation for effective language learning.

First, I think that the student’s need the suitable anxiety when they learn the language. In SLA I learned the affective filter hypothesis. This hypothesis mentioned that the students who have high anxiety, low self esteem, low confidence don’t acquire the language easily. I agree his idea because when they feel too much tension or high anxiety from the homework or difficult vocabulary items, they couldn’t understand and they couldn’t be concentrate one the class. When I designed the lesson plan, I considered that I would like to the class actively and interestingly. So I used interesting storybook, audio materials and snacks, for example, various pictures, boards, and mini stars and mini moon, etc. Also I didn’t forget about the high risky questions because they need suitable tension and they should have the ability to think creatively. For example, I usually use the TSST technique, so they should make a question and answer about my question or their classmate’s questions. Then, they could be concentrate on the lesson and enjoy it, too.

Second, in the lesson, I think that the students should participate themselves with autonomy not because of their parents or the teacher. I was designed the activity for student’s personalization. For example, I asked students, ‘If you are Monica, what will you ask your papa?, What is your favorite thing?’. These questions, they could personalize and they imagine if they were Monica. And then they could participate actively the lesson. Also they could learn the language easily.

Input and Output

When I taught the story book to my students, I focused on the form and the meaning. In SLA, I learn the language form and the meaning are both important. So I gave them speaking, writing, listening and reading tasks. They should ask and answer the question and they should speak their own ideas. It they have some mistakes, I did error correction. Also I gave the homework to them that they listen to the CD and following the naïve speaker’s pronunciation for their better pronunciation. I usually emphasis the accurate sentences for better out.


When I taught the story book, Papa please get the moon for me, I realized that the importance of using right brain and appropriate anxious and intrinsic motivation and output and input for more effective learning language. Using various materials and realia, the students could concentrate on the lesson and the language becomes meaningful and memorable to them. Also when they spoke their own idea, they could personalize and build up their speaking skill. They use speaking, writing, listening and reading ability in one storybook. It could be effective their language learning.

Submitted by Sandy