Category: Teaching methodology

Wh-questions lesson idea

I. Overview of the lesson

This lesson is designed for my Methodology final lesson plan. The student profile is university students of the intermediate-mid level. During this lesson, they learn how to use the simple past tense — both regular & irregular verbs and wh-questions by reading of two postcards and practicing through the activities. By the end of this lesson, students should be able to talk about their past events and vacation and also write their own postcards using correct regular/irregular past tense verbs without the teacher’s assistance.

II. Theoretical justification of the activities

Risk-taking

In step 7, the teacher asks a question of ‘Where did you spend your last vacation?’ to individual students by T-S-S-T. If a student answers in a word such as ‘Gangwon-do’, the place only, the teacher makes him say in a complete sentence. Calling individual students would have students answer with high risk-taking especially if the student is very shy and not sure about their competence. And also asking a question to other students by T-S-S-T and answering in a complete sentence would make the students take risks, too. According to risk-taking theory which is one of SLA affective theories, teachers should push students to improve their language. If the students answered wrong, teachers need to encourage the students to take risks by cueing or positive feedback.

Output

According to the output theory, accuracy is more important than fluency. To improve accuracy, the students need to practice the language points that they have learned and teachers should correct the errors of the students. In this lesson, the students learn grammar, expressions and vocabulary in step 8 and practice using them a lot in step 9 and step 10 through two activities. In step 9, the teacher provides interesting pictures of two people’s vacation and make the students talk about what they did on their vacation using the given forms such as ‘have dinner’ and ‘go swimming’. In step 10, the teacher makes students write their own postcards. During the activity, the students would find that they don’t know the proper words for the words that they want to write. This is called ‘noticing gap’. Some students will ask the teacher or their classmates for help or some students will look for the dictionary to fill the gap. And also they test their hypothesis, which means what they think and select the words or expressions that they have acquired to create the postcards. However, they are not sure about what they write as the new forms are not their interlanguage yet. However, speaking and writing can make students acquired the forms finally.

Intrinsic motivation

To activate the intrinsic motivation, teachers should provide good materials which contain opinion, conflict, strong advice and controversy. These kinds of materials make students feel interesting and create their own ideas. I believe the reading material, the postcards used in this lesson is so interesting that students want to read and do the activities as topics such as traveling experience is interesting topic to university students. However, the extrinsic motivation is important, too. There is no extrinsic motivation is this lesson except a lot of positive feedback. I think rewarding would be effective and revise the lesson plan if possible.

III. Conclusion

I am sure that learning SLA theories in this SMU-TESOL would be very useful to all teachers. I am not a teacher yet but I will apply these theories to my future lesson plans a lot. But one thing that teachers should remember is that they should consider the student profile and motivation at first to make the lesson more effective. I have learned ‘interlanguage’ of students are all different. Teachers should carefully observe students to guide them to the final goal.

Submitted by Joy

Making excuses lesson idea

I. Overview of the lesson

This lesson plan is for a reading section. Its title is “The truth about lying.” The passage is about white lies. The student’s profile is they are university students, early 20s. They learn English for international communication 2 times a week for 1.5 hours. Their Language proficiency is Speaking: intermediate mid, listening: intermediate high, reading: intermediate mid and writing: intermediate low. The objective is at the end of the lesson, the students should be able to create sentence to make an own excuses for a situation and match their excuses with each title of the description. The reason why they learn English is students want to use English for everyday situations and purpose related to work, school, social life, and leisure. They would like to learn the second language more meaningfully and effectively through authentic communications. The Students’ language experience is they have learned English since middle school with focus on grammar knowledge. And reading skill is not bad but they are not accustomed to authentic materials. Most of the students do not have an experience to go abroad.

This lesson is designed to Communicative language learning. Students learn by an authentic reading passage in the step 8. They will have many classroom interactions and use classroom language. Through group work, learn English in an independent way and could develop their thinking skills to solve the task. Plus, they will have many opportunities to speak through guided practice in the step 9 and independent activity in the step 10.This lesson would make students learn English more interesting and concentrate on the lesson with an authentic situation. Materials are a passage for reading, a picture of some situation that a woman is telling a lie.

II. Theoretical justification of the activities.

A. The Right Hemisphere participation

In the step 8- presentation, the teacher uses a picture to make the students to visualize. At first, she shows them a picture that a woman is eating a food. Besides her, a chef is looking at her. She said, “It’s delicious”. But she doesn’t look she is enjoying the meal. The teacher shows students this picture then let students guess what is happening between the chef and the woman. In this part, students can understand easily even though they do not read the passage. They can imagine the situation with the picture.

In the step9- guided practice, students have an opportunity to use language creatively. The teacher gives students 4 situations to make white lies that students can encounter in the real life. Students make some white lies with their own words. In this part, students can use their right hemisphere to create language. It will make students use language in a meaningful way.

In the step 10- Independent activity, students should personalize to tell their own lies. The activity is the teacher let students close eyes. She says, “I will touch only a person. Students ask each other to find out the person. The person who got touched from me should make a lie to hide the fact.” In fact, the teacher will touch all students to let them tell lies. In this part, every student should tell a lie by making own story. They will use the language to personalize to hide the truth. In this part, they can use the right hemisphere to create the answer.

B. Intrinsic motivation

In the step6, this material could excite students because this material contains an opinion. The passage describes some situations that people often make white lies. There are 4 situations that people tell a lie and also 4 proper reasons for the lies. My students would like to read this passage because they frequently encounter those situations in life. Students can tell their opinions based on their own experiences that they agree or disagree with the reason of lies for the situations. However, I think there should be more visual materials to make improve. One picture is not enough to get motivated. If the teacher offers some video clips like movies or soap operas that shows similar situations, they would be excited in reading the text.

In the step 7~8, students could involve the lesson actively because the teacher asks questions about personal experience of telling lies. In step8, the teacher asks questions “ Have you ever told white lies? Or what kind of lies do you tell?” They would be personalized for answering those questions. By eliciting students’ personal answers, the students can be motivated to the lesson.

The experience gaps in the step 9 and opinion gaps in the step10 make the lesson motivating. Students’ task in the step 9 is make lies or excuses about the questions with given situations. “ Have you ever told lies in the situation? How will you say?” Then students answer is I say . In the step 10, students tell a lie for their own situation. However, I think if students should have role played in the step 10, it could make them more motivated because students could have imagination, experience, and information gaps by the role-play. It would be better to just tell a lie in a seat.

C. Risk Taking

In the step 7, the teacher asks a personal question to activate students’ schemata to each student to encourage risk taking. They do not have enough time to prepare the answer because the teacher’s question is “what was your recent lies?” They should think and answer immediately. They would say with errors and hesitate during speaking. However, the teacher would ask the same question to each student so the student who answer afterwards, would be taking low- risk. I think if the teacher asked different questions to an individual, the students could take risk.

In the step 8, the teacher lets students guess the unknown words to encourage risk taking. Students guess the words from the context by themselves. Then discuss with their partners. When the teacher checks the meaning of the words, the teacher does not say the answer directly. The teacher gives cues until they are close the meaning. Then the teacher asks students to create a new sentence with the words and tell them. It also would encourage risk taking to their students. When they make a new sentence, there would be grammatical errors or false using the words.

My suggestion of the lesson to encourage students’ risk taking, the teacher should have given more positive feedback. The teacher offers many opportunities to take risk taking, but there are fewer compliments. And sometimes, the teacher corrects error in a direct way and immediately. It would make students discourage. The teacher’s role to improve students’ language ability is make comfortable atmosphere. Plus, this students’ level are intermediate mid, so the teacher should have led them higher level of risk taking such as summarizing the passage or other’s lies. It could be helpful to the students.

III. Conclusion.

This lesson plan is designed to student-centered learning. Through this lesson, they could be motivated and interested in language learning. However, this lesson should have used more visuals and other activities to make students more involved. If I teach students according to this lesson, I will enhance the lesson based on those theories. Also as an English teacher, I should think over how I deal with the students to elicit their linguistic ability and enhance it to reach the next level. The theories absolutely benefit my class. My responsibility is how I adapt the theories to teach students and I should apply other theories what I learned from SLA class to my class as well. I think that is my duty and a crucial point.

Submitted by Sun Hee

Complaining lesson idea

I. Overview of the lesson

This lesson is designed for intermediate-mid university students and there are 12 students in this class. The topic of this lesson is “art of complaining.” Through the lesson, the students will learn how they can describe their annoyances by using proper vocabulary items and expressions. As the text, the students will read a complain letter which is describing the writer’s complaints about a bad hotel. The students should answer focus questions with the reading by using some reading strategies such as predicting, skimming and scanning. After completing the reading task, the students will learn and practice the expressions and vocabulary for describing complaints in step 9, guided practice. Then they will write a complain letter by their own with the given information as an independent activity. Finally, have the students post their writing on online discussion board for peer evaluation.

II. Theoretical justification of the activities

A. Right hemisphere function

This lesson is designed to encourage using the right hemisphere function of brain by utilizing visual support and personalizing questions. In the warm-up stage, students will brainstorm in groups about their everyday annoyances. And at the presentation and guided practice stage, students will perform tasks based on their own annoyances in their daily life. I believe this way is meaningful for the students because the students might use their right hemisphere function with their personal emotions. In addition, I designed to use some visual support and it’s another way to activate right hemisphere function.

B. The affective filter, anxiety and motivation

In the warm-up stage, the students will answer several personalized questions without pressure to lower their anxiety. In addition lots of classroom interactions and individual questions to the students are planned to encourage the students to be active. Personalized questions can be the way of motivating the students also. Finally, I have the students to write a letter and post their writing on the online discussion board to give some facilitative anxiety and motivate the students at the same time. However the class designed not to provide too much pressure to the students by let the students edit each other without grading.

C. Input and output

For comprehensible input, this lesson is using an authentic complain letter as reading text. Through the authentic reading text, I expect the students to acquire “i + 1” while they are performing their reading tasks. However, I also designed several ways to encourage students’ output. During the class the teacher will call on some students to summarize the instructions. When they summarize, they might make some errors such as articles, possessive s or third person singular s. So they may notice their gap by themselves and try to overcome in. In addition, because the independent activity is writing a letter, they can test what they learn with the activity. In conclusion, I tried to balance input and output together to build up students’ competence.

III. Conclusion

The goal of EFL class is building up the students’ competence. Therefore, I tried hard to help the students to improve their communicative ability in English. This lesson is a kind of reading and writing class basically. Hence I put lots of classroom interactions in order to have the students to speak and listen during the lesson because they might have little chance to practice those skills during reading and writing activities. However, it was still difficult to find a way to encourage all the students participate in the lesson actively. I believe the teachers should design the lessons with considering all the well-known methodology and second language acquisition theories together and they should be balanced. In addition, I think more visual support materials and lots of classroom interactions are essential fact of successful class, so I want to try to develop those materials also.

Submitted by Ray

Subjunctive grammar lesson review

I’d like to introduce my class, which was 4 years ago, with 8 students who had entered one of foreign language high schools in Seoul. They were intelligent, enthusiastic about learning itself, and, needless to say, much interested in English. As foreign high school students, they seemed to acquire a great amount of their second language, English. However, because they wanted to learn English grammar intensively, I came to teach them Saturdays and Sundays for 1 and half hours each. While they studied and learned a lot about English, they seemed to feel something unclear in their language. Thus, I was asked to teach them especially a bit high-leveled English grammar intensively. One day, I taught the subjunctive deductively like Korean typical lesson; teacher oriented with students taking notes, sitting through the class time, and passively answering questions. For the students to follow the lesson easily, I got them to preview before class as usual. While explaining the rules of the subjunctive, I tried to make an authentic example for each rule in order for them to receive and acquire comprehensible input and for the input to last long (even though that time I didn’t know the concept of making input comprehensible).

â…¡. Theoretical justification of the activities

Right hemisphere participation

Since they all were high school students, it is obvious that they passed the critical period of puberty, which means, according to the cognitive theory, the right hemisphere didn’t take main part in language learning any more because the right hemisphere tends to harden around puberty. Therefore, they studied language by analyzing or categorizing, which is the way the left hemisphere of the brain works in, rather than standing ambiguity, or acquiring the language by emotions specialized in the right hemisphere like the way they learned the first language when they were little. I guess that due to this natural phenomenon, they couldn’t ignore the ambiguity of their second language, so they wanted to learn or fill it through analyzing or learning directly.

The affective filter, anxiety, and motivation

I think that the majority of them had moderate affective filter, which means low anxiety and fairly high intrinsic motivation. The rationale for the opinion is that my class was not much relevant to attaining high scores or any extrinsic prizes and they were apparently interested in improving their English capabilities. In addition, they seemed to enjoy taking my classes and making their own sentences in spite of a few opportunities, and enthusiastically asked questions which were not related to the day’s context showing their interest in the language. Likewise, the more they learned or acquired the more motivated and the more pleased they looked. However, one student who was the best in almost all subjects showed very high anxiety about his test scores at school and also English acquisition. Unlike Krashen’s hypothesis, he continued the position of the top at school and improved his language faster than any other student in the class by studying harder and harder.

Input and Output

I conveyed the knowledge or rules of the subjunctive mostly in the deductive way. Even though giving the chances to make their own sentences correctly and some authentic examples to them played comprehensible input, my lesson was not really making input comprehensible because the input of the lesson was focused on the rules of the subjunctive. That the students were given time to create and speak their own sentences according to the learned language probably played a good role in the hypothesis testing. However, there is no doubt that it was not enough for the students to practice the new language and find out and fix problems in their language. For comprehensible input and the hypothesis testing and noticing gaps in the output hypothesis, I should’ve asked the students to speak more and given more opportunities to make errors in the use of their language.

â…¢. Conclusion

The lesson I introduced was conducted 4 years ago when I didn’t realize there exist a number of factors and methods to improve or hinder second language learning. Although I can’t deny there is no perfect method for everybody, I now believe the typical Korean teaching style like I did in the class must be changed. It couldn’t make a big change overnight because teachers, parents, as well as students need time to get accustomed to it. For example, when one of my friends, an English teacher in a private institute too, tried to use part of the methodology she’s learned recently, asking the students ‘Now, guess what the meanings of these words would be with your partner.’ the students didn’t do pair work. Instead, they stared at the teacher, my friend, with the face perplexed. They had never done pair work, group work, brainstorming, etc. at least in private institutes, so they didn’t know exactly what they should do. The instruction was very simple though. Likewise, we should be careful of making and performing our lesson plans and should apply a lot of aspects such as time, multiple intelligence, input, output, anxiety, methods, etc. to class prudently.

Submitted by Jin

Business apology letter lesson idea

â… . Overview of the lesson

The title of the lesson plan is Business Letter of Apology. I used this lesson plan when I presented a writing microteaching in methodology class. Profile of students is adults and intermediate-mid. Target language is vocabulary related to giving apology and business letter form. The materials are jumbled letter, voucher samples, handout for reading text and focus questions, DVD (Shallow Hal) and DVD player, overhead projector, and a sample letter for writing apology. The reading text is a business letter of apology from a hotel manager in reply to one customer’s complaint. In warm-up, the teacher activates students’ schemata by asking students think of the situation of apology. After that, the teacher asks students to make an apology to a customer with a specific situation. In presentation, the teacher teaches the business letter form with jumbled letter activity and checks understanding by asking questions in handout. Next the teacher asks students to make questions for given answers in handout then finish up with teaching vocabulary. In step 10, the teacher asks students to write an apology letter to a character in the movie, Shallow Hal for the accident in the movie clip.

â…¡. Theoretical justification of the lesson

A. Intrinsic Motivation

Material especially the reading text is not motivating enough it doesn’t contain much of opinion and conflict or controversy even though students are adults and may have interest in business letter from. But the topic is personalized in step 7. Asking students to think of situation in giving an apology is motivating. In step 8, the topic is not personalized at all. It only focuses on main idea of the reading text and teaching vocabulary related to making an apology and business letter form. Personalized questions in step 8 would make the topic more interesting. Before teaching vocabulary, the teacher could ask students what they would do if they were in the position of the hotel manager in the reading text. Imagination gap and opinion gap in step 10 make the lesson motivating. Students have to write one sentence each and asked to be creative in writing. They can imagine the situation in the movie clip freely. They can have different opinion in the letter of apology to the customer.

B. Risk-Taking

Calling on individual students in step 7 and 8, high-level questions in step 8 and reading aloud after writing each sentence in step 10 encourage risk-taking. Especially in steps 7, there are many T-S-S-T rather than mind map. This makes students make questions and involves grammar. In step 8, the teacher asks high-level questions like why they put one piece after the other in jumbled letter activity. It is an analysis question. Students have to look for cohesive devices in the letter to put the pieces in the right order. The teacher used chunking for the answers of high-level questions. However cueing could encourage more risk-taking because students have to complete the sentence not repeating teacher’s modeling. In step 10, the teacher asks students to read their sentence aloud to a group member after writing their part. To make the lesson more risk-taking, the teacher could ask students to read the completed letter to the whole class.

C. Input Hypothesis

Students get roughly-tuned input as they read an authentic business letter in step 8 and the teacher asks communicative questions to practice meaningful input in step 7., i+1 is automatically included in authentic material as long as input is comprehensible. The teacher makes the reading text comprehensible in step 8 in various ways. With focus questions on main ideas and several specific fact finding questions, the teacher make it communicative class. Questions like “Have you ever apologized before?” and “What would you make an apology if you are the restaurant manager” in step 7 are meaningful and genuine questions. Those questions are designed for communicative purpose. Although the reading text is authentic, the lesson would make roughly -tuned input more comprehensible with open questions and personalized questions in step 9. They could be “What students would offer to the customer if they were in the position of the hotel manager” or “Have you ever received a voucher from a hotel or a restaurant when you made a complaint?”

â…¢. Conclusion

I was surprised to see that my lesson plan does contain many aspects of theories in SLA class and it was unintended. I didn’t think of applying those concepts in writing the lesson plan. How what I learned in the methodology class is connected to the theories in SLA is quite amazing to me. I could have made the lesson plan more perfect if I thought of applying concepts in SLA before. I am satisfied with warm-up because topic is personalized, it encourages risk-taking and roughly-tuned input is given. But in step 8, the teacher has too much to do in given time frame. Therefore the topic is not personalized enough and it contains finely-tuned input even though the reading text is authentic. In step 10, opinion gap and imagination gap make the lesson motivating and the activity involves some risk-taking. Overall the lesson is well prepared with various concepts like intrinsic motivation, risk-taking and roughly-tuned input applied except some minor deficiency in step 8.

Submitted by Anna

Find the right job lesson idea

Overview of the lesson

The title of lesson is to “Find the Job That’s Right for You”. The profile of students is adults whose language proficiency is intermediate-mid. The target language is vocabulary words that are related to personalities such as practical, investigative, enterprising, conventional and routine and expressions such as “When I was a child, I thought I could…, but later I realized that I am a … type.” and if clause for giving advice. Students are going to brainstorm various personalities and think what job is right for some personality and discuss about their personalities and jobs in pairs in the warm-up stage. In the presentation stage, teachers give instruction about the reading and give time to guess the meaning of vocabulary words in group. They also learn expressions that they use in the guide practice. In the independent activity, students will do ‘Dear Abby’ writing activity. One person will be the counselor and the other one will be the person who has a problem. The handout, job pictures, cards, a sample letter for writing activity will be used.

Theoretical justification of the activities

Intrinsic Motivation

The materials are motivating because students have opinions about the lesson. The lesson is to find the job that’s right for your personality. They can have various opinions to match the job to the specific personality. For example, if students hear the word ‘investigative’, some student can imagine the detective as a matched job and another student can imagine the researcher. It means they have their own idea about the lesson and try to be active to have their own opinions.

In the step 7(Warm-up), the questions are personalized like “Do you think every person has different character?”, “What is your personality?”. Students discuss about their own personality and it is right for their jobs or not in pairs. Job is a good issue that most people consider, so students, especially adults, welcome to think about it. In the step 8(presentation), the teacher has to be careful not just giving instruction about the text. Students will get lose their attention, so I made a lesson plan to find main idea quickly and give short time to fill in the question paper. It might help students build their self-motivation. They will guess the vocabulary words in the text and match these personality words to jobs. They have opinions the reason they choose something.

In the step 9(Guided practice), students will pick one card among a deck of cards. There is a personality word in the cards. They can practice the expression that is “When I was a child, I thought I could…, but later I realized that I am a … type.”. If they practice just this sentence, they could get bored. Teachers have to give time limit to make a full sentence. In the step 10(Independent activity), students will do “Dear Abby” writing activity in pairs. There could be a partially opinion gap. If one person writes down his/her problem and 3-4 people counsel the problems, it could have more opinion gaps because person who has a problem decide whose opinion (counseling) is helpful.

Risk-taking

In the step 7, the teacher asks personal question individually or T-S-S-T for students to encourage risk-taking. If they make errors, the teacher corrects the errors naturally. Don’t let them think they are silly. You can memorize students’ names, make classroom environment friendlier and help students to use classroom language when they don’t know the answer such as “Can you give me a hint?” instead of turning to classmates for help.

In the step 8, one student can’t answer the question and ask another classmate for help. If it happens, after another classmate answers, the teacher has to ask the student who couldn’t answer again to check comprehension. It encourages the student to take the risk more easily.

In the step 10, students have to do “Dear Abby” free-writing activity. Some students will be counselors and some students will be people who have problems. They can write down every problem that can be real or imaginary and counselors give any opinions to them. During this writing activity, students will take risk like grammatical errors or weird words use. After finishing the activity, some of them will read their writing in front of the classmates. It encourages students to take risk more and more.

Conclusion

I analyze the theories with my final lesson plan. When I made the final lesson plan, I didn’t consider what questions or activities are helpful for students or not, but I learned it to analyze my final lesson plan by myself. It is the good time to think how methodology and SLA are related and how I lead the class more actively. There are many good elements like intrinsic motivation, risk taking, input and output and so on. I believe that it is the most important thing to choose the text that elicits students’ motivation.

Submitted by Sun

Sunday morning routine lesson idea

Part 1. Summary of lesson pan

Lesson title : Sunday Morning Routines

Level: 10-12 year old elementary students , novice mid

Target language : vocabulary related to routines

Material : pictures

Warm-up

-Make sure that students know what day “Sunday” is. If they don’t know, draw a -little calendar on the chalkboard and quickly show them what day “Sunday” is.

-Ask students: What time do you wake up on Sunday mornings?

Get into a small group and ask each other

Presentation

– Uncover the chalkboard if covered. Refer to the pictures and tell the students to listen carefully. Tell the story once through. such as:

-Go through the story one frame at a time and have the students practice by repeating

the sentences

– Ask the following questions and let students take turns answering them. If they get

stuck, prompt them with key words from the story.

– More questions: Put the following question words on the board and have students create their own questions about the story. Ask a partner.

Step 9 .Telling the Story

Have students take turns telling the story on the board. Let the stronger students go first. Do not correct all mistakes but give clues and encouragement. If the class is large, do it in pairs.

Step 10.

– Let the students draw the sequence of their own Sunday morning activities. Ask them to share with a partner.

Part 2. Analysis

This lesson plan is affected by input hypothesis , risk-taking theory and Intrinsic motivation theory because the teacher tires to give input by care giver speech, encourage students to take risks by having them draw their own routine and motivate students by eliciting their own ideas.

First, In step from 7 through 8 , this lesson is based on using pictures. Visualization such as using pictures might be one of the most effective input to attract students interests. In this lesson, teachers give input mostly by pictures in step 7 to 10 and in step 8 teacher tells the story twice with care giver speech referring to the pictures.

Second, the teacher has students take a risk by asking them to create their own questions about the story in step 8. Most of students have a hard time asking questions and they might take a risk to create their own questions and ask a partner. In this situation, the teacher should give the certain instruction for making a question about the routine. The best way is to give detailed examples or give a clue to help students to take a risk. Of course the teacher can put the following question words on the board What…?Where…? When…? Who…? Also in step 9, the teacher asks students to take turn telling the story on the board. For the students who have low level proficiency might be hard work to make a story. So, if it is possible the teacher can have students write the story before they present their story.

Lastly, in step 8, the teacher has students ask questions such as “what time did I wake up?” , “What time do you wake up?” , “What is the first thing you do in the morning?”

and let students take turns answering them. In his process, student will provide their opinions and their own ideas and finally they will motivated to know each other’s information which leads to draw their intrinsic motivation. Also, the teacher tries to give intrinsic motivation in step 10. The teacher has the students draw the sequence of their own Sunday morning activities and ask them to share with a partner.

Part 3. Conclusion

This lesson is the good lesson because the teacher gives students comprehensible input that includes new language using pictures effectively. The teacher goes through one frame at a time and he produced the story clearly and communicatively considering the proficiency of the students. Also, this lesson encourages students to take risks. If students don’t take a risk, they can’t learn new language because they don’t experience it. The job as a teacher, we have to make students try and experience it even though it is a hard task for them. For the last, the teacher succeeds in drawing intrinsic motivation by making the lesson be relevant to the students. As a result, this is strong points for students to be motivated effectively and the weakness is that asking questions for the novice students are the most difficult tasks so it should be well prepared to do the activity.

Submitted by Sue

House for sale ad lesson idea

The main topic of my final lesson plan is about an advertisement of a house for sale. The student’s language proficiency is intermediate mid, and all of them are adults who are eager to improve their English because they are planning to immigrant USA or study aboard. The materials are an advertisement on web site about a house for sale, two handouts about word comprehension, and writing activity. They will learn the target languages that relate to an advertisement of a house for sale. In the content, grammar can show by the simple tense verb. Words are related to the house and house advertisement such as 1/2 bathroom, patio, amenities, Jacuzzi, area pool, sale pending, and single family detached. In addition, language functions are describing the house and persuading for house sale. In the tasks, writing task writes the letter to their parents why they chose it and speaking task is role-play. About objectives by the end of the lesson, students should be able to identify the form of advertisement, classify the terms of meaning of the house sale and practices the new vocabulary by doing a role-play. Additionally, they can describe a house that they want to buy and tell the reasons why they chose it and persuade a person to buy a house by telling good things about it.

To be specific, in warm-up, firstly, I tried many questions because they can activate their schemata by using a picture and various classroom interactions with questions.. Secondly, in presentation, I get to prepare students finding the genre and main idea with skimming and scanning, and doing matching words activity. Thirdly, each controlled and independent activities, they will do a role-play for giving some roles and characteristics. Students will have chances to practice language they do not use very appropriate even though they learn it in controlled and independent activities.

In theoretical justification of the activities, firstly, as right hemisphere of participation, I will use three activities to develop such as visualization, sociability, creativity, imagination and emotion in right hemisphere. According to showing a visual like advertisements, they can try to remember something in warm-up. In addition, they try to write the letter to their parents about advising buying the house because students imagine their parents’ situation such as immigrants. Like this activity, even thought my students are adults, they can use their imagination to learn second language. Moreover, in role-play, students can imagine and create characters and situation to communicate with each other, they can practice using language, and then use their right hemisphere.

Secondly, in the affective filter, anxiety, and motivation, I will give students some closed-referential and open-referential questions which can activate their schemata like “have you ever seen an advertisement of a house for sale?”, “could you remember the advertisement of a house for sale in what there are?” in warm-up step. Before the presentation step, students can have low affective filter through these questions and can be small anxiety for the lesson. Hence, it can be helpful for students to have low affective filter as well they can have the answer more easily and comfortably with those questions. Besides, those questions are sufficient to have a high motivation because they can be interested in the topic of the lesson by asking and answering the questions, as they would expect. Thirdly, in the input and output for make input comprehensible, I will train my students rephrase with chunking, after exploring the main idea of reading text because it is very essential and helpful for understanding the reading text. Along with, I will preview the lesson with some closed-referential and open-referential questions that can activate students’ schemata; students can guess the lesson and prepare for their lesson at ease. In addition, I will describe and explain the detail of buying house, so students can widen their knowledge.

I tried such as repeat, rephrase, preview, describe can help students reach I+1 more naturally and comfortably. These things can not only accomplish to language communicative competence, but also comprehend new language meaningfully. I used to apply the teaching of grammar rule directly like finely tuned input, so most of students who were in grammar teaching setting cannot speak correctly, just focus on memorizing, not meaningful. As a teacher, I will build an attempt to help students make input comprehensible. For output to students, I will ask many questions, even though students cannot know what they have errors. Above all, doing a role-play, students are able to achieve the communicative goal, in speaking activity, they will practice their language related to giving some describing and persuading. In addition, in writing activity, students can get a opportunity to practice their language expressions and new vocabulary. All of things considered, the most significant object is to achieve the goal of communication competence, so I will apply various technique, make comprehensible input, and get all set to the lesson naturally.

Therefore, my students are adults; they have already passed the puberty. I guess that they could feel not easy in learning a second language more than children learn. As a teacher, I will try to train many tasks, like that; I will provide them to apply their right hemisphere because adults feel trouble-free to use their left hemisphere. So, it is not good exercise for learners to a second language. Next, to ask question about activating their schemata, they can have a low affective filter, particularly adults can be troubled what they will make errors. Moreover, they can throw away their anxiety by doing activities; teacher’s job is to get prepared for the lesson more comfortably. The last, I think that input and output are very significant for learners, and then they cannot separate. If a teacher want to make input comprehensible lots, they would speak to complete competence, apply various input comprehensible, make some activities which can practice their target language, and know what they have difficulties. Therefore, all of my students can advance to their communicative goal if they have many opportunities.

Submitted by Kyungim

What’s your ideal type lesson idea

Summary of lesson plan

The title of the lesson is “Have I found Ms. Right?”. This is for adult at the proficiency level of intermediate-mid. In the warm-up, the teacher tells a story about Christmas Eve with background music to activate students’ schema. The teacher asks them such as “What is his/her personality like?”. The teacher show PPT of a variety of pictures of faces and says words which describe personalities and appearances like ‘compatible, generous and considerable, etc.’ The teacher wants the students to do TPS by giving them a question “What’s your ideal type?”. While communicating in a whole class, the teacher model and ask students to repeat.

In the presentation, the teacher provides students with an article ‘Dear Agnes column’. The students skim the text for main idea and do TPS for filling in the graphic organizer. The students scan it for specific information and do ‘true or false’ with their partner.

In Step 9, the teacher has students do an information gap activity. Students are given handouts with different blanks. They should ask their partner questions such as “When will the engagement party be held?”. After information gap activity, the students share their answers with partner and one of them read his/her invitation information.

In step 10, the teacher has students write a reply accepting or declining the invitation. Before writing, they do TPS for FATP of the writing. While sharing ideas in a class, the teacher can ask such as “What’s the purpose of your writing?”. After writing a reply, the students exchange their letters with their group members. The teacher asks someone to summarize his/her group member’s decision and reason.

Analysis of how well the lesson integrates into SLA theories

This lesson was influenced by Input Hypothesis. The teacher asks several questions to individual students to activate students’ schema in the warm-up. The teacher asks students “What’s your ideal type?”. According to Krashen, this question is meaningful message for them. It’s called roughly-tuned input. Furthermore the teacher uses the effective music and pictures to make his/her talk comprehensible. The students can draw on their interest to answer to the question like “What’s your ideal type?”. The teacher constantly involves students, ask many questions, and encourage students to express their ideas and thoughts in the new language through TPS. In the presentation, the teacher provides students with an article ‘Dear Agnes column’ for skimming and scanning. The primary method of getting comprehensible input is through reading according to Krashen. In step 9, the students interact meaningfully through information gap activitiy. They ask and answer each other to fill in the blanks. Peers can provide each other with comprehensible input. Input from group mates may be more comprehensible and communicative. Furthermore, peer input may be of a particularly high interest level.

This lesson involved Intrinsic motivation. This reading material is interesting, appropriate for intermediate-low adults. After the students read this ‘Dear Agnes column’, they can give strong advice, opinion or suggestion to the writer. Good authentic material can motivate the students to read or speak. When the teacher shows the students why it’s personally relevant to them, in other words, when the students personalize the topic, the students are very motivated. The teacher asks students “Can you tell us about your ideal type?”, and they think of that in step 7. In step 9, the students do an information gap activity. Good communicative activities have gaps. The students have to find the gaps in communicative activities. The students talk each other to get missing information. This is an intrinsic motivation for communication. In step 10, they write a reply accepting or declining. This is an opinion gap. If you want to know the partner’s opinion, they want to talk to each other.

This lesson shows that it’s designed using risk-taking. Calling on student individually and asking him/her question like “ , can you tell about your imagined ideal type?” in warm-up is risk-taking. The teacher asks someone to summarize his/her group member’s decision and reason in step 10. Summarizing is high risk-taking job. The speaker has to consider time limit, right grammar and pronunciation. The student has a lot of chance of failure.

In terms of Output Hypothesis, this lesson shows noticing the gap and hypothesis testing. In the step 8, when the teacher asks students “What is the first rule to choose a perfect marriage partner?”, the students have to answer like “Marry someone who has qualities you admire.” , “Marry someone who is polite and kind to others.”. However the students can make errors like “Marry someone has qualities you admire.” , “Marry someone who polite and kind to others.” The students may discover problem and try to solve that problem through the teacher’s modeling, chunking, or correcting errors directly.

Conclusion-Talk about how successful the lesson was, would you revise it based on the theories?

This was my team’s methodology microteaching lesson plan. It was interesting and successful. The students were motivated and could practice four language skills in the lesson. However there are a few things to revise based on the theories. In the presentation, the activity is not interesting. The students just scan and skim the text, summarize and ‘true or false’ activity. They may use the language memorized from the text. It would be better that the teacher asks students some personal questions individually to increase students’ motivation. For example, “Among these rules, which one do you think is the most important to you in choosing a perfect marriage partner?”. In step 9, the students do information gap activity. They have different information and blanks, so they have to exchange the missing information. This is for just study. If the students read movie star’s real invitation, it would be fun. And they can write their own wedding invitation. This is likely to be more authentic and creative writing. After this writing, the students can get their partner’s wedding information through questions and answers. While doing this, they have to use the new language. This activity involves risk-taking. In step 10, the invitation is not authentic. The students are not willing to write a letter to unfamiliar people. They are not quite interested in their engagement party. It would be better that the hosts are celebrity. If Tom Cruise invites you to his engagement party, you are very excited about replying to him. It is related to intrinsic motivation.

Submitted by Emily

Single-life vs. Married-life lesson idea

Overview of the lesson.

My final lesson plan topic is “Being single or being married, which is better?” The students profile is the intermediate-low for adults and the materials are two handouts, pictures, and use on the white board. Being marriage is the hot issues among the younger generation and so I choose this topic. In the warm-up, I presented two pictures and draw the mind —map to help students understanding the topic. In the presentation, the lesson is focused on understanding the text by skimming, scanning to find genre, main idea and specific idea about advantages and disadvantages of being married in the text. In the step 9 and step 10 are activities. One is to give some advice about marriage life for their friends; the other is to write a love letter to their fiancé. After finishing the writing, the teacher and students evaluate about the lesson.

Theoretical justification of the activities.

Right hemisphere participation

I used two activities to help students the lesson, such as visualization, sociability, and imagination in the right hemisphere participation. I think that the visualization is good way to help students guessing their imagination or creativity because students can make language to remember easier and two pictures are presented as a meaningful tool. I used imagination in warm-up and writing activity. This is helpful to guess some vocabulary items and students imagine that they have some problems with their fiancé when they write the love letter.

B) The Affective Filter, anxiety, and motivation.

These factors are very important to learn the second language because these are used to check students’ achievement when they learning the second language. If students have high affective filter, students become more difficult to pick up new language. When I ask some questions to students about being single and married, I didn’t think they have much high affective filter and anxiety, because the topic is a common thing in our life even though it is a important thing. The lesson was processed through comprehension check, classroom interactions, and pair work. Students could concentrate on the lesson, but I don’t think that I gave students a high motivation in writing because students were not interested in writing a love letter because they usually send an e-mail when they connecting each other. That is why some students didn’t concentrate on the activity. I should have considered this when deciding the activity.

Input and output

Input hypothesis said that students build competence by understanding messages when teacher provides comprehensible input. So in my lesson, I tried to understand for students to make a comprehensible input and output what they learned knowledge by using rephrase, summary and paraphrase, and T-S-S-T classroom interaction after reading the text or giving the directions. I think that these methods are helpful for students understanding during the lesson. However, I am not sure whether I gave students I+1 or not. I leaned I+1 is necessary for students when teaching. I know that I should do in my lesson, but I didn’t give enough input I+1. Next class, I should consider this for students and plan the lesson.

3. Conclusion

Through my lesson plan, I realized that there are some problems to understand for students and I should consider these essential factors. When learning the second language, I try to prepare the lesson plan in more detail. I learned many theories of Second Acquisition Language class and they are useful for the lesson, but I like to emphasize on I+1and students can have a low affective filter, low anxiety, and high motivation to learn while studying the second language. It is useful for students to convey and understand knowledge more easily and more meaningfully. Moreover this is the teacher’s job.

Kim, kyoung-ae